Contributed by Prof. Dr. Nazeer Ahmed, PhD

Year Event
570 Birth of Prophet Muhammed (p) at Mecca
610 Revelation of the first verses of the Qur’an
Ali ibn Abu Talib (r) and Abu Bakr as Siddiq (r) accept Islam
615 Conversion of Omar ibn al Khattab (r).
620 A group of Muslims migrates to Abyssinia to escape the persecution in Mecca.
622 Prophet Muhammed (p) migrates to Madina.
Start of the Islamic calendar.
624 Battle of Badr.
625 Battle of Uhud.
626 Battle of Khandaq (Battle of the Trench).
627 Prophet Muhammed (p) concludes the Treaty of Hudaibiya with the Meccans.
628 The Muslims reclaim Mecca.
The Prophet sends messages to Khosroe of Persia, Heraclius of Byzantium, Muqawqis of Egypt and the king of Yemen, inviting them to accept Islam.
632 Farewell pilgrimage of Prophet Muhammed (p).
The last verse of the Qur’an is revealed.
Defensive expedition to Tabuk against the Byzantines ends in a stalemate and commander Zaid bin Harris is killed in action.
Prophet Muhammed (p) passes away.
The Companions establish the Caliphate to affirm the historical continuity of Islam.
Abu Bakr as Siddiq (r) is elected the first Caliph.
Death of Fatimat az Zahra (r), beloved daughter of the Prophet, wife of Ali ibn Abu Talib (r).
633 Abu Bakr (r) conducts campaigns against eastern Arabs to ensure their compliance with zakat.
Rise of the false prophets.
Battle of Yamama against Musailimah al Kazzab.
Abu Bakr (r) authorizes the preparation of a written copy of the Qur’an, the Mashaf e Siddiqi.
634 Muslim armies defeat the Byzantines at the Battle of Ajnadyn.
Abu Bakr (r) passes away.
Omar ibn al Khattab (r) is elected the Caliph.
635 Campaigns against eastern Roman and Persian Empires.
The Muslims capture Damascus.
636 The Persian army is defeated at the Battle of Qadasia.
The Byzantines are defeated at the Battle of Yarmuk.
Jerusalem conquered by Arab armies. Freedom of worship is guaranteed to Christians.
637 The Muslims capture Madayen, capital of the Persian Empire.
640 Omar bin al As begins campaigns in Egypt.
641 Arab armies advance towards Khorasan, Afghanistan and Sindh.
642 The conquest of Egypt is completed.
Caliph Omar streamlines the administration of the vast empire.
Judicial rulings of Omar ibn al Khattab (r) and Ali ibn Abu Talib (r) provide a basis for the sciences of Fiqh.
Persian armies defeated at the Battle of Nahawand.
643 First construction of the Al Aqsa mosque in Jerusalem.
644 Caliph Omar ibn al Khattab (r) is assassinated.
Uthman bin Affan (r) is elected the Caliph.
649 Cyprus is captured from the Byzantines.
650 Pronunciation of Qur’anic verses standardized.
652 Death of Abu Dhar al Ghifari, venerated Companion and Sufi.
656 Caliph Uthman bin Affan (r) is assassinated.
Ali ibn Abu Talib (r) is elected the Caliph.
Beginning of the Civil Wars.
Caliph Ali ibn Abu Talib (r) defeats dissidents under Aisha binte Abu Bakr (r) at the Battle of the Camel.
657 Muawiya ibn Abu Sufyan, governor of Syria, refuses to recognize the Caliphate of Ali (r).
Battle of Siffin between forces of Ali (r) and Muawiya.
Beginning of the Kharijite schism.
658 Ali ibn Abu Talib (r) defeats the Kharijites at the Battle of Nahrawan.
Muawiya is declared the Caliph by his supporters in Damascus.
659 Truce between Caliph Ali ibn Abu Talib (r) and Muawiya ibn Abu Sufyan.
661 Caliph Ali ibn Abu Talib (r) is assassinated.
Age of Khulfa e Rashidoon ends.
Muawiya claims the Caliphate.
Beginning of the Umayyad dynasty.
Imam Hassan ibn Ali retires from politics.
665 Muawiya orders the buildup of a navy.
667 Muslim armies capture Khorasan.
669 Death of Imam Hassan ibn Ali.
670 Uqba bin Nafi begins the conquest of North Africa.
The city of Kairaoun in North Africa is founded.
671 Muslim armies capture the island of Rhodes.
The first attempt to capture Constantinople fails.
678 Death of Aisha binte Abu Bakr (r), wife of Prophet Muhammed (p) and the source of a large number of Hadith.
680 Death of Muawiya ibn Abu Sufyan.
Yazid, son of Muawiya, becomes Omayyad ruler.
The tragedy of Karbala; Hussain ibn Ali, grandson of the Prophet, is martyred.
Beginning of Yawm e Ashoora.
683 Yazid sacks Madina.
Uqba bin Nafi conquers North Africa.
Death of Yazid; Muawiya II succeeds him.
684 Marwan I becomes the Caliph.
685 Abdul Malik becomes the Caliph.
Construction of the Dome of the Rock in Jerusalem.
Muslim armies advance into Central Asia.
690 Omayyad armies reach the Atlantic Ocean.
691 Dome of the Rock in Jerusalem is completed.
692 Abdul Malik mints the first coins of the Islamic state.
693 Al Hajjaj, also known as al Hajjaj the cruel, becomes governor of Iraq.
694 Construction of the Omayyad Mosque in Damascus.
699 Death of Al Juhani, rationalist, philosopher.
705 Al Walid I becomes the Caliph and begins a vigorous expansion of the empire.
711 Tariq ibn Ziyad lands in Spain. Visigoth army under Rodriguez is defeated at the Battle of Buhayrah.
Muhammed bin Qasim lands at Debal, subdues Baluchistan, Sindh, Multan and southern Punjab.
712 Musa ibn Nusair advances into Leon, Astoria and Galicia.
Beginning of 780 years of Muslim rule in Andalus.
Jewish golden age in Spain.
Death of Imam Zainul Abedin.
713 Zaid bin Zain ul Abedin organizes resistance to the Omayyads. Beginning of the Zaidi branch.
Muslim armies capture Lyons in France.
714 Muhammed bin Qasim recalled from Sindh by Hajjaj bin Yusuf and imprisoned until death.
Muslims capture Normandy in France.
715 Sulaiman becomes Umayyad Caliph.
Musa ibn Nusair recalled from Spain by Caliph Sulaiman, stripped of all power and banished into the desert.
717 Omar bin Abdul Aziz becomes the Caliph and attempts reconciliation in the Islamic community. He lowers taxes on peasants in Persia and Egypt.
The Byzantines repulse a second Muslim attempt to capture Constantinople.
Spread of Islam into Persia and Egypt picks up momentum.
719 Omar bin Abdul Aziz is poisoned.
Yazid II becomes the Caliph.
720 Muslim armies cross the Pyrenees and occupy southern France.
724 Hisham becomes the Caliph.
728 Death of Hasan al Basri, well known Sufi Shaykh.
731 Death of Imam al Baqir.
732 Charles Martel stops the Muslim advance into Europe at the Battle of Tours.
735 Muslim armies advance through southern France and occupy mountain passes in Switzerland.
740 Death of Imam Zaid bin Zain ul Abedin.
743 Al Walid II becomes the Caliph.
744 Abu Muslim is appointed the chief dayee of Khorasan.
Yazid III, Ibrahim and Marwan II become the Caliphs in rapid succession.
745 Imam Ja’afar as Saadiq discusses Fiqh issues in his study circles. Imam Abu Haneefa participates in these studies and benefits from them.
746 Beginning of the Abbasid revolution in Khorasan.
747 Kufa falls to the Abbasids. Abu Muslim nominates Abul Abbas as the first Abbasid Caliph.
750 The Abbasid Revolution.
The Abbasid forces defeat the Caliph Marwan at the Battle of Kushaf. The Umayyads are swept away from power and are slaughtered.
Abdur Rahman I escapes to Spain.
Beginning of the Abbasid Caliphate in Baghdad. Abu Abbas al Saffah becomes the first Abbasid Caliph.
751 Battle of Tlas. The Muslim armies are victorious over the forces of the Tang Empire. China cedes Central Asia to the Caliphate.
Systematic development of Fiqh begins.
754 Al Mansur becomes the Caliph, sends troops into China in response to a request for help from the Tang Emperor Tsung.
755 The Umayyad Abdur Rahman I establishes the Umayyad Emirate in Cordoba, Spain.
759 The Franks recapture Narbonne from the Muslims.
760 Death of Imam Ismail, son of Imam Ja’afar as Saadiq.
Beginning of the Fatimid branch among Muslims.
763 Baghdad becomes the seat of the Caliphate and the cradle of Islamic civilization.
765 Death of Imam Ja’afar as Saadiq, one of the principal sources of Fiqh. Caliph al Mansur establishes schools of translation in Baghdad.
Muslims come into contact with Greek philosophy and Indian mathematics.
768 Death of Imam Abu Haneefa, after whom the Hanafi school of Fiqh is named.
Charlemagne (768-814) ascends the Frankish throne.
775 Al Mahdi becomes the Caliph.
778 Charlemagne of France raids Muslim Spain.
780 Charlemagne invades German territories and converts the Germans to Christianity.
781 Ibn Jabir invents the science of chemistry.
785 Al Hadi becomes the Caliph.
786 Harun al Rashid becomes the Caliph. Golden age of Baghdad.
788 Beginning of the Idrisid dynasty in North Africa.
790 The manufacture of paper is introduced into Baghdad from China.
795 Death of Imam Malik bin Anas, after whom the Maliki school of Fiqh is named.
799 Zubaida, wife of Harun al Rashid performs the Hajj and builds rest houses for hajjis on the road.
Death of Imam Musa al Kazim.
800 Harun al Rashid and Charlemagne exchange ambassadors.
801 The city of Fez is established.
Charlemagne begins an invasion of Muslim Spain.
802 Death of Rabia al Adawiya, one of the most celebrated spiritual luminaries and a teacher of Sufi masters.
809 Death of Harun al Rashid. Al Amin becomes the Caliph in Baghdad.
813 Al Mamun succeeds his brother Al Amin as the Caliph.
814 Death of Charlemagne. The Carolingian Empire in Europe begins to disintegrate.
815 Al Khwarizmi invents the science of Algebra and develops the mathematics of equations.
Viking raids from the North ravage Europe.
The Abbasid Empire begins a slow process of disintegration. The Idrisids in North Africa and the Tahirids in Persia become autonomous.
818 Death of Imam Ali al Rida.
820 Death of Imam al Shafi’i, after whom the Shafi’i school of Fiqh is named.
Rise of the Aghlabids in North Africa.
822 Music flourishes at the court of Cordoba under the musician al Zirhab.
The Aghlabid armies from North Africa invade Sicily.
827 Caliph al Mamun adopts Mu’tazilite doctrines as court dogma.
The Idrisids capture Crete, Sardinia and Sicily.
830 Caliph al Mamun patronizes the Bait ul Hikmah (House of Wisdom) in Baghdad and encourages translation of Greek and Sanskrit books into Arabic. The Muslims develop concept of decimals in mathematics.
831 Muslims capture Palermo Italy.
833 Death of Al Mamun. Al Mu’tasim becomes the Caliph and enlists Turks into the army.
835 Death of Imam al Jawwad.
838 Umayyad armies from Spain occupy Marseilles France.
840 Death of al Khwarizmi, mathematician, Sufi shaykh.
842 Al Wathiq becomes the Caliph.
846 The Aghlabids in North Africa occupy Pisa and conduct a raid on Rome.
847 Al Mutawakkil becomes the Caliph; abandons Mu’tazilite doctrines.
850 Turkish influence in the Caliphate grows.
855 Death of Imam ibn Hanbal, after whom the Hanbali school of Fiqh is named.
861 University of Kairaouine (established 859 CE) in Fes, Morocco. Caliph al Mutawakkil is murdered in Baghdad. Al Muntasir becomes the Caliph.
866 Al Mu’taz becomes the Caliph.
868 Egypt becomes autonomous under the Tulunids.
Palermo, in Sicily, becomes a center of Islamic learning.
Death of Imam al Hadi.
870 The Zanj, workers from East Africa, revolt in Iraq.
Death of Al Farabi and Al Kindi, noted men of science.
Death of Al Tabari, renowned physician.
The Muslims capture Malta.
Al Mu’tamid becomes the Caliph in Baghdad.
874 Death of Abul Hussain Muslim, compiler of Hadith.
Death of Imam al Askari.
Death of al Kindi, mathematician, astronomer.
Death of al Bistami, one of the most celebrated Sufi Shaikhs.
875 Hamdan Karamat starts the Karamatian movement.
The Sassanids establish themselves in Bokhara.
878 Disappearance of Imam al Muntazar, the Twelfth Imam.
Beginning of belief in the hidden Imam.
880 The Aghlabids lose southern Italy to Christian forces.
882 A rebellion of the Zanj in Iraq is crushed.
885 Death of Dawud ibn Khalaf, expounder of the Zahiri school of Fiqh.
887 Peasant revolt in China against foreigners forces out the Muslims of Canton.
889 Death of ibn Kutaiba, historian.
890 Spanish Muslims re-establish bases in southern France and conduct raids into Switzerland.
892 Death of Muhammed al Tharmidi, historian.
Al Mu’tadid becomes the Caliph.
893 The Karamatians capture Yemen.
898 Imam al Hadi Yahya establishes a Zaidi state in Yemen.
900 The Arabian Nights are compiled.
Improvements appear in the design and use of the Astrolabe.
The Kharijites establish a dynasty in Sijilmasa, North Africa.
901 The Samanids emerge in Khorasan, Persia.
902 Al Muktafi becomes the Caliph.
903 The Karamatians plunder Damascus.
904 Muslim armies capture Solonika from the Byzantines.
907 Abu Abdullah, Fatimid leader, moves to North Africa.
908 Al Muqtadir becomes the Caliph in Baghdad.
909 The Fatimids establish themselves in North Africa.
Ubaidulla al Mahdi becomes the first Fatimid Caliph.
910 Al Razi conducts research into infectious diseases including small pox, rabies and the plague.
912 Reign of Abdul Rahman III in Spain (912-961). Cordoba becomes the premier city of Europe. Golden age of Spain. Science and civilization thrive.
914 Nasr al Saeed of the Samanids in Khorasan favors the Fatimids over the Abbasids.
915 The Kharijites establish themselves in southern Morocco.
The Fatimids raid Egypt.
922 Mansur al Hallaj, Persian mystic, is executed for his esoteric views.
Beginning of the Tahirid dynasty in Iraq.
923 Death of Abu Tabari, noted commentator on the Qur’an.
925 Death of al Razi, doctor of medicine.
929 In response to Fatimid claims to the Caliphate, Abdul Rahman III of Spain assumes the title of Caliph and protector of Sunni Muslims in North Africa.
930 The Karamatians raid Mecca and carry off the Hijr e Aswad from the Haram to Bahrain.
931 Abdur Rahman III occupies Ceuta.
The Fatimids capture Algeria.
932 The Buyids establish their rule in southern Iraq.
Al Qahir becomes the Caliph in Baghdad.
933 The Ishkedids displace the Tulunids in Egypt and rule until 969.
934 Al Radi becomes the Abbasid Caliph.
Al Qaim becomes the Fatimid Caliph.
936 Death of al Ashari (874-936), highly influential theologian who reconciled Mu’tazilite doctrines with orthodox theology. Author of “occasionalism” in philosophy.
939 Abdul Rahman III of Spain captures Fraxinetum, Valais, Geneva, Toulon and Great St. Bernard.
940 Extensive postal services are established by the Abbasids.
Al Muttaqi becomes the Abbasid Caliph.
945 The Buyids temporarily capture Baghdad.
946 Al Mutee’ becomes the Abbasid Caliph.
Al Mansur becomes the Fatimid Caliph.
950 Death of Al Farabi, noted scientist, philosopher, jurist, author of treatises on ethics, music and logic, Sufi Shaykh.
951 The Ikhwan as Safa in Iraq compile an Encyclopedia of Knowledge.
953 Al Muiz becomes the Fatimid Caliph in North Africa.
955 Sharp naval engagements between the navies of Al Muiz and Abdul Rahman III off the coast of Spain.
957 Al Masudi, the historian, passes away.
961 Death of Abdul Rahman III.
The Oghuz family of Turks in Central Asia accepts Islam.
962 The Seljuk, Alaptagin, establishes a kingdom in Ghazna, Afghanistan.
968 The Umayyads establish a university in Cordoba.
969 The Fatimids conquer Egypt and establish the city of Cairo.
970 The Fatimids capture Syria, Mecca and Madina and lay claim to the leadership of the Islamic world. Fatimid rule in Multan (modern Pakistan). Brisk trade between Alexandria, Egypt and Venice, Italy.
971 The Fatimids establish Al Azhar University in Cairo.
974 Al Ta’ee becomes the Abbasid Caliph.
975 Death of Al Muiz, Fatimid Caliph of Egypt. Al Aziz becomes the Fatimid Caliph.
Muslim astronomers publish manuscripts showing constellations of stars.
988 Count Vladimir of Kiev embraces Eastern Orthodox Christianity.
991 Al Qadir becomes the Abbasid Caliph.
996 Al Hakim becomes the Fatimid Caliph.
Pope Pious XI declares the Crusades against Muslims.
997 Mahmud succeeds Alaptagin in Ghazna and dominates Central Asia.
999 Large scale Turkish migrations into Central Asia.
Kara Khani Turks occupy Bukhara.
Mahmud of Ghazna annexes Khorasan.
1000 Mahmud makes the first of seventeen raids into India.
The Chinese use gunpowder to propel arrows.
1001 Mahmud starts campaigns to capture Peshawar, Bhera, Nagarkot, Tarain, Thaneshwar and Kanauj in India.
1004 Mahmud defeats Dawud, Fatimid ruler of Multan.
1016 The Christians reclaim Sardinia.
1017 Beginning of the Druze sect in Lebanon.
1020 Death of Firdowsi of Persia, author of Shah Nama.
Mahmud establishes Lahore as the capital of Punjab.
Death of Fatimid Caliph al Hakim who had claimed divinity.
1021 Al Zahir becomes the Fatimid Caliph.
1024 Mahmud raids temple of Somanath in Gujrat, India.
1025 Al Baruni publishes Kitab ul Hind, a penetrating study of the people of India.
1030 Death of Mahmud of Ghazna.
1031 The Umayyad Caliphate of Cordoba disintegrates. Spain breaks up into petty emirates. The Christian kingdoms of Castille, Leon and Portugal position themselves to attack the Muslim territories.
Al Qaim becomes the Abbasid Caliph in Baghdad.
1032 The Church of Constantinople breaks with the Church of Rome over the issue of icons in the Church.
1036 Taghril Beg becomes Seljuk Sultan.
Al Mustansir becomes the Fatimid Caliph.
1037 Death of Abu Ali ibn Sina, one of the greatest of physicians.
Ferdinand I, king of Castille, captures Leon.
1038 Death of Al Hazen, noted physicist.
1043 The Fatimid Empire begins to crumble. Mecca, Madina, Yemen and North Africa are lost by the Fatimids.
1048 Death of al Bairuni, historian, author of Kitab ul Hind.
1050 The Christians advance in Sicily.
1051 Beginning of the Murabitun revolution in West Africa.
1056 The Seljuk Taghril Beg and the Buyid Basisiri contest the control of Baghdad.
1058 Taghril Beg is anointed by Abbasid Caliph Kaim as “sultan of the east and the west” for his role in protecting the Abbasid Caliphate.
1060 The Seljuk Turks advance into Persia, Azerbaijan and Armenia.
The Crusaders raid the coast of North Africa.
1061 The Murabitun capture Morocco.
The Murabitun establish the city of Marrakesh as their capital.
1063 Taghril Beg dies childless. His nephew Alap Arsalan becomes the Seljuk sultan.
1068 Beginning of the Songhay Empire in West Africa.
1072 Battle of Manzikert. The Seljuk Turks under Alap Arsalan defeat the Byzantines under Emperor Romanus and open up Anatolia for Turkish settlement.
The Christians capture Palermo in Sicily.
1075 The Seljuk Sultan Malik Shah retakes Syria from the Fatimids.
Al Muqtadi becomes the Abbasid Caliph.
1077 Birth of Abdul Qader Jeelani, celebrated Sufi sage.
1085 Alfonso I of Castile captures Toledo, the ancient capital of Visigoth Spain. The extensive libraries of Toledo become accessible to Christian Europe.
1086 The Murabitun emir, Yusuf bin Tashfin, advances into Spain at the head of a powerful African force.
The Nizamiya College is founded in Baghdad by Nizam ul Mulk, grand vizier to Sultan Malik Shah.
1087 Yusuf bin Tashfin defeats Alfonso VI at the Battle of Sagrajas.
The Crusaders sack Mahdiya in North Africa.
The assassin terror grows in Iraq and Syria.
1090 Al Ghazzali teaches at NizamiyaCollege, Baghdad.
The Crusaders capture Malta.
The assassins capture Alamut in northern Syria and establish a training center for fidayees.
1091 End of Muslim presence in Sicily.
Smyrna in Anatolia becomes the Seljuk capital.
Death of Sultan Malik Shah.
The assassins murder grand vizier Nizam ul Mulk.
1094 Al Mustansir becomes the Abbasid Caliph in Baghdad.
Al Mustadi becomes the Fatimid Caliph in Cairo.
1095 Pope Urban II declares a Crusade to take Jerusalem.
Al Afdal, grand vizier of Fatimid Egypt, recaptures Jerusalem from Turkish emir Duqaq of Damascus.
1096 The start of the First Crusade.
1097 Konya Anatolia becomes the Seljuk capital.
The Turks retreat before the advancing Crusaders.
The Fatimids in Egypt start negotiations with the Crusaders to divide up Seljuk territories.
1098 The Crusaders capture Antioch.
1099 Jerusalem falls to the Crusaders. The Muslims and the Jews are massacred. Baldwin becomes king of Jerusalem.
1100 Al Ghazzali writes a powerful diatribe, Tahaffuz al Falsafa, against speculative philosophy. In Ihya al Uloom, he accords tasawwuf an honored position in the Islamic sciences.
1101 Shaykh Abdullah Arif introduces Islam into the island of Sumatra, Indonesia.
1106 Death of Yusuf bin Tashfin, emir of the Murabitun.
1111 Abu Hamid al Ghazzali dies after transforming the intellectual landscape of the Islamic world.
1113 Maudud, a Seljuk officer from Mosul, defeats King Baldwin of Jerusalem.
1118 Al Mustarshid, Abbasid Caliph in Baghdad.
1123 Death of Omar al Khayyam, mathematician, mystic.
1124 Death of Hassan al Sabbah, leader of the Assassins.
1126 Archbishop Raymond establishes a school in Toledo to translate Arabic books into Latin.
1127 The Assassins murder Turkish officer Maudud.
1130 Death of ibn Tumart, leader of the Al Muhaddithin.
1132 Roger II of Sicily invites Muslim scholars to work at his court.
1139 Birth of Khwaja Moeenuddin Chishti, Sufi sage.
1141 The Kara Kitai Turkomans defeat the Seljuks at Amu Darya.
1144 The Seljuks, under Zengi, recapture Edessa.
Pope Eugene declares the Second Crusade.
1145 The Second Crusade collapses in Anatolia but succeeds in capturing Lisbon in Portugal.
End of the Murabitun rule in Andalus.
1146 The al Muhaddithin captures Morocco.
The assassins murder Seljuk Emir Zengi.
1149 Al Zafir becomes the Fatimid Caliph.
1150 The University of Paris is established.
1151 Al Idrisi constructs a map of the then known world.
1154 The Kurdish officer Nuruddin, in Seljuk service, takes Damascus.
Al Faiz becomes the Fatimid Caliph in Cairo.
1157 The al Muhaddithin captures Andalus.
1160 Al Mustanjid becomes the Abbasid Caliph in Baghdad.
Al Adid, the last of the Fatimids, becomes the Caliph in Cairo.
1163 The Seljuks and the Crusaders compete for influence in Fatimid Egypt.
1166 Death of Shaykh Abdul Qader Jeelani of Baghdad, called Shaykh ul Mashaiq, founder of the Qadariya Sufi order.
Death of the geographer, al Idrisi.
1167 Establishment of Oxford University in England.
1170 Salahuddin takes Egypt from the Fatimids.
Al Mustadi becomes the Abbasid Caliph in Baghdad.
1171 End of the Fatimid era. Egypt reverts to the Abbasid Caliphate.
1173 Ghiasuddin Ghori established the kingdom of Ghor in Afghanistan.
1175 Salahuddin consolidates his hold on Syria and Egypt.
Death of Ahmed al Rifai, founder of the Rifaiyah Sufi brotherhood.
1177 Muhammed Ghori adds Multan, Uch, Dera Ismail Khan and Sindh to his dominions.
1179 Muhammed Ghori starts campaigns to capture Peshawar and Sialkot.
1182 Khwaja Muhammed Ghouse of Sindh introduces the Qadariya order into India and Pakistan.
1187 Battle of Hittin. Salahuddin triumphs and recaptures Jerusalem.
Muhammed Ghori captures Lahore.
1188 Pope Clement III launches the Third Crusade.
1189 Khwaja Moeenuddin Chisti moves to Ajmer, India and establishes the Chistiya order.
1190 King Richard of England proposes a marriage between his sister and Saifuddin, brother of Salahuddin and for the two together to rule Jerusalem. The proposal is opposed by the Crusaders and is abandoned.
1191 Accra surrenders to the Crusaders after a long siege.
Mohammed Ghori suffers a defeat at the Battle of Tarain and is forced to withdraw towards Kabul.
1192 Muhammed Ghori, victorious over the Rajputs, captures Delhi. Prithvi Raj Chauhan, ruler of Ajmer and Delhi is slain.
1193 Salahuddin passes away and is buried in Damascus.
1196 The al Muhaddith emir al Mansur defeats the Crusaders at the Battle of Alarcos.
1198 Death of ibn Rushd, of the great world philosophers.
1199 Pope Innocent III declares the Fourth Crusade.
1200 Islam takes roots in Indonesia.
Alauddin Muhammed becomes the Shah of Khwarazm.
The Crusaders capture Valencia.
Cambridge University is established in England.
1201 The Latin Crusaders sack Zara, a Christian city on the Adriatic.
1202 The Delhi Sultanate is established.
1203 Death of Nizami, well known Farsi poet.
1204 The Crusaders, led by Dondolo of Venice, sack Constantinople and loot its treasures.
Johan Shah, ruler of Sumatra, accepts Islam.
1205 The Turkoman Kara Kitai defeats Mohammed Ghori.
The Ghorids put down a rebellion in the Punjab.
1206 Genghiz Khan becomes the supreme ruler of the Mongol tribes.
The assassins murder Muhammed Ghori.
The Delhi sultans advance towards Bengal.
1211 Altumish ascends the throne of Delhi.
1212 The Crusaders defeat the al Muhaddith at the Battle of Las Novas de Tolosa.
1215 Genghiz Khan captures northern China; learns the use of gunpowder from the Chinese.
1218 The Fifth Crusade is directed against Egypt. The Egyptians open the Nile docks and drown the invaders.
1219 Genghiz Khan invades the territories of Shah Muhammed of Khorasan.
1220 Genghiz Khan devastates Central Asia.
1221 Genghiz Khan destroys Persia and Afghanistan.
Prince Jalaluddin faces the Khan at the Battle of the Indus.
1222 Genghiz Khan returns to Mongolia.
1223 Ibn al Athir, celebrated historian, passes away.
1227 Death of Genghiz Khan. The Mongols continue their advance through West Asia and Eastern Europe.
1228 The Sixth Crusade, directed at Egypt and led by Emperor Frederick II of Germany fails.
1230 Sundiata starts consolidation of the Empire of Mali.
1235 Baba Fareed of Lahore becomes heads of the Chistiya order in India.
1236 Cordoba, capital of Muslim Spain, falls to the Crusaders.
Razia rules as Queen of India.
Death of Khwaja Moeenuddin Chishti of Ajmer, the most celebrated awliya of the subcontinent.
Al Mustansir becomes the Caliph in Baghdad.
1240 Death of ibn al Arabi, renowned Sufi Shaykh.
Roger Bacon teaches in England.
1242 Al Musta’sim becomes the 37th and the last Abbasid Caliph in Baghdad.
1245 At the Council of Lyons, Christian Europe resolves to seek an alliance with the Mongols against the Muslims. A Franciscan priest, John de Plano Carpini, arrives at the Mongol court to seek military assistance.
1248 Seville in Spain falls to the Christians.
Ibn Ahmar starts the Nasirid dynasty in Granada.
1249 The Seventh Crusade, directed at Egypt by the Franks, is beaten back.
1250 Shajarat al Durr rules as Queen of Egypt.
1251 Hulagu Khan becomes the Mongol lord of Persia and Central Asia.
1256 Hulagu Khan destroys the Assassins.
1257 Death of Shaykh Saadi, celebrated Farsi poet.
Nizamuddin Awliya becomes head of the Chishtiya order in Delhi. Islam spreads in India.
1258 Hulagu Khan sacks Baghdad. End of the Abbasid Caliphate of Baghdad. The curtain falls on the classic Islamic civilization. Caliph al Musta’sim is killed.
Death of Ali al Shadhuli, founder of the Shadhuli Sufi order.
1260 Kublai Khan ascends the throne of China. Many capable Muslims work at the court of the Great Khan.
Hulagu Khan storms Aleppo and massacres its inhabitants.
1261 The Mamlukes of Egypt install Al Mustansir as the Abbasid Caliph in Cairo.
The Mamluke, Zahir Baybars of Egypt, defeats a combined army of Mongols, Armenians and Crusaders at the Battle of Ayn Jalut.
1265 Death of Hulagu Khan.
1269 The Merinide al Yakub captures Marrakesh.
1273 Death of Jalaluddin Rumi, author of Mathnavi, the most celebrated of Farsi poets and founder of the Maulavi Sufi order.
1274 Death of al Tusi, astronomer and inventor of the 2-axis gimbal.
Emir al Yaqub of the Merinides defeats the Christians at the Battle of Ecija.
1277 Sultan Baybars defeats the Mongol armies at the Battle of Abulistan.
1278 Death of Sultan Baybars.
1289 The Mamlukes captures Acre, last Crusader stronghold in Syria.
1290 Sultan Malik Shah rules in Sumatra.
1291 Death of Shaykh Saadi, well known Farsi poet.
1294 Marco Polo returns to Italy from journey to the East.
1295 Ghazan the Great, the Il Khan Emperor, accepts Islam.
1300 Alauddin Khilji consolidates his empire over the subcontinent. Malik Kafur advances into southern India.
1301 Uthman Ghazi, founder of the Ottoman Empire, consolidates his holdings around Burs and Eskishehir; he defeats the Byzantines at the Battle of Yalakova.
The Mamlukes triumph over the Il Khans at the Battle of Marj as Suffar.
1307 Mansa Musa becomes emperor of Mali.
1316 Death of Alauddin Khilji, emperor of India.
1320 The Khilji dynasty in India collapses.
Beginning of the Tughlaq dynasty.
1324 Mansa Musa performs his hajj with an entourage of 12000.
1325 Death of Nizamuddin Awliya of Delhi.
Ibn Batuta begins his journey around the world.
                Death of Amir Khusroe, famed Sufi poet of India.
1326 Death of Uthman I, founder of the Ottoman Empire. His successor Sultan Orkhan captures Bursa.
Death of ibn Taymiyah, noted scholar, considered to be the founder of the “salafi” school of thought.
1333 Yusuf I becomes emir of Granada, breaks with Castille, forms an alliance with the sultan of Morocco and makes a last attempt to capture Spain from the Christians.
1334 Ibn Batuta arrives in Delhi.
Death of Shaykh Safiuddin Ishaq, after whom the Safavid dynasty of Persia is named.
1335 Death of Abu Said, Il Khanid Prince.
1340 The Yuan Emperor Toghon Timur of China sends an embassy to the court of Muhammed bin Tughlaq of India.
The Merinide navy defeats the Spaniards at the Battle of Tarifa.
1341 Death of Sultan ibn Qalawun of Egypt.
1345 Ibn Batuta visits Sultan Malik al Zahir of Pasai Indonesia.
1346 The Black Plague devastates Europe.
1351 Death of Muhammed bin Tughlaq of India. The Tughlaq Empire begins to disintegrate.
1354 Ibn Batuta visits the Empire of Mali.
The Ottomans capture Gallipoli and Ankara.
1355 Ibn Batuta returns to Tangier. The Merinide Sultan Abu Inan authorizes the writing of the Rehla of Ibn Batuta.
The Genoese briefly occupy Tripoli, Libya.
1357 The Ottomans capture Erdirne.
1368 Timurlane, elected the leader of the Tatars, consolidates his hold on the valley of Farghana in Uzbekistan.
1369 Death of ibn Batuta.
1375 Dimitrius, Count of Moscow, wins a victory over the Tatar Golden Horde.
1376 The Golden Horde burns down Moscow.
1380 Timurlane begins his first campaign in Persia.
Shaykh Awliya Karim al Maqdum introduces Islam into Mindanao, the Philippines.
Kara Muhammed, leader of the Turkish tribe Kara Kuyunlu, establishes his kingdom near Mosul.
1381 The Ottomans capture Bulgaria.
1385 The Ottomans capture Thrace.
1387 Timurlane invades Russia and destroys the power of the Golden Horde. Russia begins its long march towards political consolidation.
1389 Bayazid I becomes the Ottoman sultan, defeats the Serbs at the Battle of Kosova.
Death of Hafiz, one of the greatest of Farsi poets.
Death of Bahauddin Naqshband, founder of the Naqshbandi Sufi tareeqa of Bukhara.
1390 A combined French and Genoese force attacks Mahdiya, Tunisia.
1391 Bayazid I attacks Constantinople.
1396 Bayazid defeats the Crusader armies at the Battle of Nicopolis.
1398 Timur sacks Isfahan, Persia.
1399 Timur invades India, sacks Delhi, India.
Castille sacks Tetuan, Morocco.
1400 Bayazid I lays siege to Constantinople.
1401 Timur defeats the Mamlukes of Egypt.
Damascus surrenders to the Tatars.
Timur sacks Baghdad.
1402 Timur defeats Bayazid I at the Battle of Ankara.
Sulaiman I becomes the Ottoman sultan.
Sultan Iskander Shah expels the Thais from Malaya.
1404 Timur embarks on an expedition to China.
1405 Timurlane dies en route to China; his son Shah Rukh succeeds him.
1406 Sultan Sikander Shah of Malaysia accepts Islam.
The great Chinese Admiral Zheng Yi (commonly known as Admiral Ho), a Muslim, sails to Malaya, Indonesia, India, Persia, Yemen, East Africa and the Cape of Good Hope with a fleet of 50 great ships.
Death of ibn Khaldun, author of Muqaddamah.
1409 Shah Rukh, heir to Timurlane, occupies Samarqand.
1410 Kara Yusuf establishes the Kara Kuyunlu kingdom around Tabriz, Persia.
Death of Gaysu Daraz, Sufi shaykh of the Deccan, India.
1411 Sultan Iskander Shah of Malaya visits China at the invitation of the Chinese Emperor.
Prince Mehmet begins the reconsolidation of the Ottoman Empire after the disastrous defeat in the Battle of Ankara.
1415 The Portuguese capture Ceuta in Morocco.
1420 Shah Rukh consolidates his hold on Persia.
1421 Murad II becomes Ottoman Sultan.
1422 Murad II lays unsuccessful siege to Constantinople.
1424 Death of Sultan Iskander Shah of Malaya.
1425 Tangier in Morocco, captured by the Portuguese.
1430 The Portuguese acquire the technology to sail against the wind from the Venetians.
1432 Portuguese captain Diaz sails around Cape Bajador in West Africa.
1434 Death of Shah Rukh. Persia disintegrates. The Kara Kuyunlu and Aq Kuyunlu expand their territories.
Ulugh Bey of Farghana (Uzbekistan) authorizes the construction of an observatory in Samarqand.
1441 First slave raid by the Portuguese in southern Morocco directed against Muslims.
1443 The Portuguese capture the island of Tristao off the coast of West Africa, later to gain notoriety in the Atlantic slave trade.
1444 Ottomans armies march into Hungary.
Murad II defeats combined armies of Hungary, Wallachia and Venice at the Battle of Varna.
The Portuguese Lagos Company chartered under Prince Henry.
1445 Printing is introduced into Europe. Portuguese sailor Diaz sails around West Africa.
1451 Mehmet II becomes Ottoman Sultan.
Shaykh Rahmat converts the Majapahit ruler (Indonesia) Raja Kertawijaya to Islam.
Islam spreads rapidly in Java.
1453 Mehmet II conquerors Constantinople, renames it Istanbul and makes it the capital of the Ottoman Empire.
1455 The Venetians sail to the delta of the Gambia River.
1456 Mehmet II captures Athens, Greece.
The Portuguese arrive at the mouth of the Gambia River.
1458 The Portuguese occupy the fortress of al Qasr, Morocco.
1460 King Alfonso of Portugal authorizes Fernao Gomes to explore the western coast of Africa.
1461 Leonardo da Vinci begins his work in Venice.
1463 Mehmet II conquers Bosnia. Mosque of Sultan Mehmet II constructed in Istanbul.
1465 Death of al Jazuli, Sufi Shaykh in Morocco.
1467 Herzegovina conquered by Mehmet II.
Uzun Hassan, leader of Aq Quyunlu defeats Jehan Shah, leader of the Kara Quyunlu. Jehan Shah dies in battle.
1471 Tangiers occupied by Portugal.
Portugal occupies Arzila on the West coast of Morocco.
1473 Ottoman Sultan Mehmet II defeats the Aq Kuyunlu Sultan Uzun Hassan. Portuguese captain Sequira sails to Benin, Nigeria.
1474 Commercial town of Kedah, in Indonesia, becomes Muslim.
1475 War between Spain and Portugal over rights to the Canary Islands.
1478 Kara Quli, a descendant of Jehan Shah, flees to India and establishes the Qutubshahi dynasty near Hyderabad.
Death of Uzun Hassan, Aq Quyunlu Sultan.
Turmoil in western Persia.
1479 Consolidation of Spain under Ferdinand and Isabella.
1480 The Ottomans capture the island of Rhodes.
1481 Bayazid II becomes Ottoman Sultan.
1482 Ferdinand of Spain attacks al Hama.
1483 Civil wars in Granada.
Ferdinand captures Malaga, Spain.
1484 The Portuguese appear at the delta of the Congo River.
1487 Portuguese sailor Diaz rounds the Cape of Good Hope.
1488 Malaga, one of the last Nasirid strongholds, falls to Castille.
1489 Adil Shah becomes Sultan of Bijapur, India
1490 Ferdinand lays siege to Granada, called Santa Fe (Holy Faith).
1492 Columbus discovers America.
Granada falls to the Christians.
Beginning of the Spanish Inquisition.
The Jews are expelled from Spain.
Sultan Bayazid II takes Hungary.
Lodhi Sultanate established in Delhi.
Death of Abdur Rahman Jami, well known Farsi poet.
1493 Abu Abdallah, commonly known as Boabdil, last emir of Granada, leaves Spain.
Askiya Muhammed becomes Emperor of Songhay.
1494 At the Treaty of Tordesillas arranged by Pope Alexander VI, Portugal and Spain agree to divide up the world for conquest.
1495 Shaykh Putah introduces Islam into the Celebes islands and western New Guinea.
1496 Vasco da Gama, sails around the Cape of Good Hope and with the help of Muslim navigator Ahmed ibn Majid, discovers route to Malabar, India.
1497 Zahiruddin Babur loses Samarqand.
Askiya Muhammed moves the capital of Songhay to Gao on the Niger River.
1499 Ottoman navy defeats the Venetians, takes Lepanto, off the coast of Greece.
1500 Muslims in Granada resist the Spanish Inquisition.
Spain institutes forced slavery in Cuba.
1501 Shah Ismail I, with the help of the Safaviyya Sufi order, establishes the Safavid dynasty in Persia.
The Uzbek Shaibani Khan evicts Zahiruddin Babur from Samarqand.
1502 Second voyage of Vasco da Gama to the Indian Ocean. The Portuguese bombard the city-states of East Africa, destroy the port city of Cochin, India and force the Raja of Cochin to expel Muslim traders.
The Portuguese capture Shofala, East Africa.
Leonardo da Vinci paints the Mona Lisa.
Inquisition against the Muslims in Spain.
1504 Babur takes Kabul, Afghanistan.
Death of al Maghili, influential thinker from North Africa.
1505 Spain occupies Mars al Kabir, Algeria.
The Portuguese occupy Agadir Morocco and build the fort of Santa Cruz.
Portuguese captain Almeida raids Kilwa, Tanzania.
1507 The Portuguese occupy Safi, Morocco.
The Portuguese occupy Bab el Mandap at the entrance to the Red Sea.
1508 A Mamluke fleet defeats the Portuguese off the coast of Chaul near modern Karachi.
Spain occupies Oran, Algeria.
1509 The Mamlukes defeat the Portuguese navy off the coast of Yemen.
Shah Ismail I defeats the Uzbek Shaibani Khan at the Battle of Merv.
Spain occupies Bogie, Tunisia.
The first batch of slaves bought in Lisbon for transportation to America.
1511 The Portuguese take Goa, India, and make it the capital of their operations in the Indian Ocean.
The Inquisition is instituted against Hindus and Muslim in India.
Spain destroys Tripoli, Libya.
The Ottomans crush a Qazilbash uprising in eastern Anatolia at the Battle of Sivas.
1512 Selim I becomes Ottoman Sultan.
The Portuguese capture the Straits of Malacca.
Tlemcen in North Africa becomes a protectorate of Spain.
The Uzbeks defeat the Safavids at the Battle of Khuzduvan and take Khorasan.
1514 Ottoman Sultan Selim I defeats Shah Ismail I at the Battle of Chaldiran.
1515 The Portuguese capture the Straits of Hormuz in Persia.
The Portuguese control the entire Atlantic coastline of Morocco.
First shipload of sugar from Cuba arrives in Spain.
1516 The Portuguese occupy Bahrain and Oman.
The Ottomans capture Mosul.
Ottoman Sultan Selim I defeats the Mamlukes at the Battle of Marj Dabik in Syria.
1517 Selim I occupies Cairo.
Egypt becomes a province of the Ottoman Empire.
The Caliphate moves to Istanbul.
Selim I becomes the first Ottoman Caliph of Islam.
Muhammed al Mahdi becomes Sa’adid Sultan of Morocco.
Martin Luther begins Protestant reformation in Germany.
The Portuguese capture Colombo, Sri Lanka.
The King of Spain grants license to import African slaves into America.
Ibrahim Lodhi becomes Sultan of Delhi.
1519 Death of Leonardo da Vinci.
Mexican silver flows into Europe.
1520 Sulaiman the Magnificent becomes Ottoman Sultan.
1521 Sulaiman captures Belgrade.
Cortez destroys the Aztec Empire of Mexico.
1522 Sulaiman captures Rhodes. Spain captures Central America.
1525 Death of Safavid Shah Ismail I.
Tahmasp I becomes Safavid ruler of Persia.
Babur takes Lahore, Pakistan.
Sulaiman the Magnificent orders a reorganization of the Ottoman fleet to challenge the Spaniards and the Portuguese.
1526 Babur captures Delhi; the Moghul dynasty is born. Sulaiman the Magnificent defeats the Hungarians at the Battle of Mohacs.
1527 Babur defeats Rajput armies at the Battle of Khanua.
1528 Sultan Sulaiman captures the city of Buda in Hungary.
Askiya Muhammed becomes blind and is deposed as the Emperor of Songhay.
1529 Sultan Sulaiman lays siege to Vienna, Austria.
1530 Death of Zahiruddin Babur. His son Humayun ascends the Moghul throne in Delhi.
The Englishman William Hawkins raids the Ivory Coast.
1534 Khairuddin, admiral of the Ottoman fleets, recaptures Tunis.
Henry VIII takes the Church of England out of the orbit of Rome.
1535 Sulaiman Pasha, Ottoman governor of Egypt, drives the Portuguese from Yemen.
The English Parliament passes laws against loitering in London.
John Calvin preaches the Protestant Reformation in Switzerland.
Stock Exchange is established in London.
1536 Khairuddin raids Valencia, Spain.
1537 Khairuddin captures Otranto, Italy and threatens Rome.
1538 Khairuddin victorious over combined navies of Venice and the Vatican at the Battle of Prevesa.
1540 Spain colonizes the Philippines.
Destruction of religious relics in England. Beginning of the end of feudalism in England.
Sher Shah Suri defeats Moghul Emperor Humayun and displaces him from the throne of Delhi until 1555.
1541 Charles V of Spain strikes at the Algerian coast.
Ottoman Admiral Khairuddin takes Otranto, Italy.
Muhammed al Saadi drives the Portuguese from the fort of Santa Cruz in Morocco.
1542 Increasing tribal warfare in West Africa.
1546 Death of Khairuddin. Piri Rais becomes admiral of Ottoman navies.
1550 Kingdom of Acheh in Indonesia is founded. Islam spreads in the Archipelago.
1551 The Ottomans reclaim Tripoli.
Piri Rais challenges the Portuguese blockage of the Straits of Hormuz.
1553 Thomas Wyndham of England raids the coast of West Africa.
1554 John Lock of England raids the Ivory Coast.
1557 The Ottomans occupy Masawa, Eritrea.
1558 Akbar becomes Moghul Emperor of India.
1560 Akbar adds Malwa, Chitoor, Rathambur, Gujrat and Bengal to the Moghul Empire (1560-1574).
Abul Fazal and Faizi, well known writers, grace the Moghul court.
Akbar surrounds himself with the “seven gems”; men of outstanding capabilities, including the musician Tan Sen and the Finance Minister Raja Todar Mal.
1561 Piri Rais prepares an accurate map of the Atlantic seaboard.
The Ottomans destroy a Spanish fleet at the Battle of Djerba.
1562 Akbar marries Jodha Bai, princess of Amber, Rajasthan.
1563 First English fortifications off the coasts of New Guinea.
1564 Spain occupies the Philippines.
1565 Battle of Telekote, India. The combined forces of Bijapur, Golkunda, Bidar and Gulbarga defeat the armies of Vijayanagar in southern India.
Piri Rais undertakes unsuccessful siege of Malta.
Akbar, the Great Moghul, captures Gujrat.
John Hawkins of England conducts slave raids on Sierra Leone.
Sulaiman the Magnificent passes away
1566 Muslims in Spain rebel against forced conversion to Catholicism.
1571 Battle of Lepanto. Combined navies of Spain, Venice, Austria and the Vatican defeat the Ottoman navy and occupy Tunis. Ottoman naval advance into the western Mediterranean is halted.
1572 The Ottomans reclaim Tunis.
The Dutch gain their independence from Spain.
1573 The Moghul Emperor Akbar authorizes the construction of four large temples in Mathura.
1576 The Ottomans advance through Algeria and take the city of Fez in Morocco.
1578 Battle of Al Qasr al Kabir. The Sa’adid Sultan Ahmed al Mansur crushes the Portuguese army. King Sebastian of Portugal is killed. Morocco remains independent. Ottoman westward advance is halted.
1579 Akbar, the Great Moghul, completes the construction of a new city, Fatehpur Sikri. He starts ecumenical discussions with all religious faiths in the Ibadat Khana.
1580 Ottoman Admiral Ali Beg raids Portuguese positions in East Africa.
Skirmishes between the Empire of Songhay and the Sa’adids of Morocco over the salt mines of Taodini.
Portugal becomes a protectorate of Spain.
1581 Akbar, the Great Moghul, moves to Lahore, and adds Kashmir, Sindh, Baluchistan and southern Afghanistan to his empire.
Akbar completes the construction of a Jami Masjid in Peshawar.
Queen Elizabeth I sends Harborne as ambassador to Istanbul to seek trade relations with the Ottomans.
1585 War between the Safavids and the Ottomans for control of Iraq and Azerbaijan.
1587 Pope Sixtus V authorizes a Catholic crusade against England.
The English defeat the Scots. Consolidation of Britain under the English throne.
1588 Shah Abbas becomes Safavid emperor of Persia.
The Spanish armada is destroyed off the coast of England.
Death of Sinan, architect of Sulaimaniye and Shehzade mosques in Turkey.
1590 William Shakespeare writes in England.
1591 The Bohras emerge as a sub-branch of the Fatimids.
1592 The Sa’adids of Morocco invade the Songhay Empire. A strong force under Judar Pasha destroys Timbaktu.
1596 Akbar captures Ahmednagar in the Deccan, India.
1598 A second Spanish attempt to conquer England ends in failure.
1600 Dutch ascendancy in the Atlantic. The Atlantic slave trade gathers momentum.
The British East India Company is granted a charter by Queen Elizabeth I.
1602 Shah Abbas drives the Portuguese from Bahrain.
The Dutch East India Company is formed.
1603 Death of Queen Elizabeth I.
1605 Death of Moghul Emperor Akbar.
1609 Final expulsion of Muslims from Spain.
1615 The Dutch capture the Straits of Malacca from the Portuguese.
Thomas Roe arrives in India as British ambassador to the Moghul court.
Galileo is tried by the Church for his view that the earth is not the center of the universe.
1619 The Dutch East India Company obtains trading rights on the island of Java.
Thomas Roe obtains a farman from the Great Moghul Jehangir granting Britain trading rights in India.
1620 Sufi doctrines spread to East Asia.
The Pilgrims land at Port Plymouth, Massachusetts.
1622 Shah Abbas I, with the help of the British navy, expels the Portuguese from the Straits of Hormuz. The British obtain trading rights in Persia.
1623 Murad IV becomes Ottoman Sultan.
1624 Death of Shaykh Ahmed Sirhindi, referred to as Mujaddid alf e Thani (Reformer of the Second Millennium). He expounded the doctrine of Wahdat as Shahada.
1626 The Dutch establish themselves in New Amsterdam (New York).
1627 Shah Jehan, Moghul Emperor of India.
1630 Death of German Astronomer Johann Kepler.
1635 Death of Mian Pir of Lahore, teacher of Dara Shikoh, son of Shah Jehan.
Emperor Shah Jehan expels the Portuguese from Bengal.
1638 Shah Jehan builds a new capital at Delhi. Construction of the Jami Masjid in Delhi.
1638 The British East India Company establishes a factory at Madras.
1640 Armed rivalry between Britain, France and the Dutch for control of the slave trade.
Portugal gains its independence from Spain.
The Dutch capture Sri Lanka.
The British East India Company establishes a factory at Calcutta.
1641 Sultana Tajul Alam Safiyyiatuddin rules as Queen of Acheh. She is the first of four queens to rule over the northern part of Sumatra.
The Dutch capture Cochin on the West coast of India.
1642 The Dutch establish a colony at Masulipatam on the East coast of India.
1643 War between Venice and the Ottomans for control of Crete.
1648 Shah Jehan completes the Taj Mahal, the most celebrated monument to love, for his wife Mumtaz Mahal.
The Portuguese recapture Brazil from the Dutch.
1655 The Kurpulu brothers Mehmet Pasha and Fazil Ahmed revitalize the Ottoman administration (1655-1676).
1658 Aurangzeb becomes the Moghul Emperor.
1659 End of the Sa’adid dynasty in Morocco.
1660 Isaac Newton revolutionizes physics.
1664 The British seize New Amsterdam, rename it New York.
The Battle of St. Gotthard between the Ottomans and the European “Holy League” ends in a stalemate.
1666 The Qur’an is translated into the Malay language.
1668 King Charles II of England sells Bombay to the East India Company.
1676 Kara Mustafa Pasha becomes grand vizier in Istanbul.
1677 War between Russia and the Ottomans over access to the Black Sea.
1683 The second siege of Vienna ends in failure. The Ottomans lose Hungary.
1686 The Hapsburgs advance through Hungary towards Belgrade.
The British make an attempt to capture the port of Chittagong in India and are beaten back by Moghul forces.
1687 The Ottomans are defeated at the second Battle of Mohacs.
1694 The Bank of England advances a perpetual loan of 1.2 million pounds to the British Crown in return for the privilege of putting its own notes into circulation.
1696 Peter of Russia captures the strategic fortress of Azov from the Ottomans.
The Sultan of Oman recaptures Fort Jesus of Mombasa from the Portuguese.
1707 Death of Aurangzeb. The Moghul Empire begins to disintegrate.
1708 The assassination of Guru Gobind Singh sets off Sikh revolts against Moghul rule in India.
1713 The British displace the Dutch as the most powerful force in the Atlantic and Indian Oceans.
1722 Tahmasp II, last Safavid ruler of Persia ascends the Persian throne.
Nizam ul Mulk is appointed the Subedar of Hyderabad.
1736 Nadir Shah becomes Emperor of Persia, displaces the Safavid Tahmasp II.
1739 Nadir Shah of Persia invades India, sacks Delhi, and carries off the Peacock Throne.
1740 Shaykh ibn Abdul Wahhab starts his movement in Najd, Arabia.
1741 Ahmed ibn Said becomes Sultan of Oman and Zanzibar and attempts to build a strong navy.
1746 Muhammed ibn Saud establishes the Saudi dynasty near Riyadh.
1754 The French General Dupleix leaves India. France loses the contest for control of Indian trade to the British.
1756 Anglo-French wars in India and America (1756-63). The British are victorious over the French.
1757 The Battle of Plassey. The British gain control of Bengal, India.
1758 The Industrial Revolution in England gains momentum, fueled by the loot from Bengal.
The Marathas occupy Lahore; oust Timur, son of Nadir Shah of Kabul.
1761 Third Battle of Panipat near Delhi. The Afghans under Ahmed Shah Abdali defeat Maratha armies.
1762 Death of Shah Waliullah of Delhi, leading reformer.
1763 The Treaty of Paris. The French give up their interests in India and America.
1764 The British starve the Begums of Oudh, India, to surrender their jewels.
Battle of Buxor. The British defeat the combined armies of Oudh, Bengal and Delhi.
1765 The British wage a brutal campaign against the Afghans of Rohilla in India.
1767 The First Mysore War (1767-68). Tippu Sultan and his father Hyder Ali force the British to sue for peace.
1772 The British Parliament abolishes the slave trade.
1776 The Colonies declare independence in America. The American War of Independence (1776-83) follows.
1780 The Second Mysore War. Tippu Sultan defeats the British at the Battle of Pollipur.
1781 George Washington defeats General Cornwallis at the Battle of Saratoga. Cornwallis surrenders at Yorktown, retires to England, is hired by the East India Company, and is sent to battle Tippu Sultan of Mysore.
1787 Death of Shaykh ibn Abdul Wahhab of Arabia.
1789 The Third Mysore War (1789-91). Cornwallis forces Tippu Sultan to cede half of his Territory; takes Tippu’s children as hostage.
Beginning of the French Revolution.
1793 The British Permanent Settlement Act imposes feudal landlords upon Bengal.
1798 Napoleon lands in Egypt and is victorious at the Battle of the Pyramids.
The British capture Colombo from the Dutch.
1799 Napoleon corresponds with Tippu Sultan of Mysore and the Sultan of Oman about an invasion of India.
Tippu Sultan falls at the Battle of Srirangapatam.
Napoleon is defeated by Nelson at the Battle of Trafalgar and is forced to withdraw from Egypt.
1801 The Wahhabis raid Karbala. Wahhabi movement spreads to Iraq. The Wahhabis raid the Hejaz.
1803 Muhammed Ali becomes the Ottoman governor of Egypt; starts a long series of reforms.
The Marathas in Poona, India, sue for peace with the British.
Denmark abolishes the slave trade.
Emir Abdul Aziz of Najd captures Mecca.
1805 Muhammed Ali becomes the Pasha of Egypt.
1806 British armies enter Delhi.
1807 Uthman dan Fuduye establishes the Sokoto Caliphate.
Muhammed Ali Pasha beats back a British attempt to seize Alexandria, Egypt.
1808 The United States abolishes the slave trade.
1812 Muhammed Ali of Egypt recaptures Mecca and Hejaz from the Wahhabis (1812-15).
1817 Death of Uthman dan Fuduye, mujahid in West Africa.
Muhammed Bello becomes Caliph of the Sokoto Empire.
1818 Holland abolishes the slave trade.
1821 Greek war against the Ottomans.
1827 Naval Battle of Navarino pits European axis against the Ottomans.
Shaykh Ahmed Lobo establishes the kingdom of Lobo in West Africa.
1828 War between Russia and the Ottomans over control of the Black Sea. Russia advances into Anatolia.
1830 Greece breaks off from the Ottoman Empire.
France occupies Algiers.
1834 Beginning of Muslim resistance to the Russians in Daghestan, Crimea and the Caucasus.
1835 The Ottomans defeat the French at Malta.
The British replace Persian with English in the higher courts in India.
1837 Sanusiya Sufi brotherhood is founded in North Africa.
1838 British invasion of Afghanistan ends in failure.
1839 Abdul Mecit I becomes Ottoman Sultan.
Beginning of Tanzimat reforms in the Ottoman Empire.
1840 France starts colonization of Algeria.
1846 The Bank Act of 1846 in England confers legal recognition on the negotiability of credit documents.
1848 Nasiruddin Shah ascends the throne of Persia.
1850 The Bahai schism starts in Persia.
1851 The British build a railroad linking Alexandria with Suez (1851-54).
1853 The Tijaniya Sufi brotherhood is established in West Africa.
Beginning of the Crimean War. Britain and France support the Ottomans against Russia.
1854 Ibrahim Pasha of Egypt grants a concession to French Engineer Ferdinand de Lesseps to build the Suez Canal. Egypt borrows funds from international bankers to complete the canal.
The Ottomans take their first loan from international bankers.
1856 End of the Crimean war between Russia and the Ottomans.
1857 The Sepoy Uprising in India. After initial successes, the Uprising is crushed by the British. End of Moghul rule. The British exile the last Moghul Emperor Bahadur Shah Zafar to Rangoon, Burma.
1858 The Russians capture Imam Shamil, Naqshbandi Imam in Daghestan. End of Muslim resistance in Chechnya and Daghestan.
1859 Death of Muhammed al Sanusi, Reformer, Sufi Shaykh of Libya.
1860 Alhajj Omar resists French colonization in Sene-Gambia.
1861 American Civil War (1861-65). The price of Egyptian cotton soars in world markets.
1863 Abraham Lincoln proclaims the abolition of slavery.
1869 The Suez Canal opens with much fanfare.
The price of Egyptian cotton drops precipitously. Egyptian public debt mounts.
Tunisia falters on debt payments to European bankers. The International Debt Commission for Tunisia assumes control over Tunisian finances.
1871 A unified Germany emerges as the most powerful continental power in Europe.
1873 The Dutch capture the Kingdom of Acheh in Sumatra. Beginning of Dutch colonial rule in Indonesia.
1874 Syed Ahmed Khan founds the Aligarh College in India.
1875 Egypt sells off its share in the Suez Canal Company to the British to partially offset its debts.
1876 Abdul Hamid II becomes the Ottoman Sultan and Caliph. He starts consolidation of ties with Muslim peoples worldwide.
Egypt falters on debt payments. Britain and France appoint a Commission on Egyptian Public Debt with the power to confiscate revenues.
1877 Russia invades the Ottoman Empire (1877-78). Russian troops advance to within ten miles of Istanbul and dictate capitulation terms to the Turks at the Treaty of San Stefano.
1878 Egypt is forced by Britain and France to accept international control over her finances.
Treaty of Berlin results in effective dissolution of the Ottoman Empire in the Balkans.
Britain occupies Cyprus.
1879 Britain and France force Khedive Ismail Pasha of Egypt to abdicate in favor of his son Tawfiq Pasha. Sultan Abdul Hamid acquiesces in the abdication.
1880 The French, in violation of the Treaty of Berlin, occupy Tunisia and declare it a “protectorate”.
1881 Egyptian nationalists under Ahmed Torabi Pasha stage protests against foreign control.
1882 The British bombard Alexandria into submission, defeat the Egyptians at the Battle of Tel el Kabir and occupy Cairo.
The Mahdi seizes Khartoum and establishes a Caliphate in the Sudan.
1885 The British storm Khartoum. Death of al Mahdi of the Sudan.
An Englishman, Allan Hume, founds the Indian National Congress.
1888 Ghulam Mirza Ahmed starts the Ahmadiya schism in Punjab, India. The movement draws strong opposition from the ulema.
1891 The Tobacco Concession touches off an uproar in Persia. Peaceful boycott of tobacco, under a fatwa from Hajji Mirza Hassan Shirazi, forces the Shah to rescind the Concession.
1896 Nasiruddin Shah of Persia is assassinated.
Death of Jamaluddin Afghani, pan Islamic activist.
1901 Abdul Aziz ibn Saud captures Riyadh.
1906 All India Muslim League is founded.
1907 Death of Muzaffaruddin Shah of Persia. His son Muhammed Ali Mirza becomes the Shah. The first Majlis is elected in Persia.
The Young Turks Movement in Turkey gathers momentum.
1908 Austria-Hungary annexes Bosnia-Herzegovina.
Constitutional revolution in Persia. Muhammed Ali Shah of Persia is deposed. His young son Ahmed Mirza becomes the Shah.
1909 Sultan Abdul Hamid II is deposed by the Young Turks.
Mehmet V becomes the Sultan.
1911 The Sanusi brotherhood resists the Italian invasion of Libya.
1912 Muhammadiya movement is organized in Indonesia.
Egypt becomes a British protectorate.
1913 The Balkan war begins. Serbia, Greece and Bulgaria invade Ottoman territories. Albania becomes independent. The Ottomans are forced to withdraw from most of the Balkans.
1914 A Serb in Sarajevo murders Prince Francis Ferdinand of Austria. Austria declares war on Serbia.
Russia declares war on Austria.
Germany declares war on Russia.
France and England declare war on Germany.
The Triple Entente powers (Britain, France and Russia) declare war on the Ottomans.
Beginning of World War I.
1915 The Ottomans contain British advances in Iraq and beat back attempts to capture Baghdad and Istanbul.
1916 The British promise to set up a unified Arab state.
Sharif Hussain declares himself king of Hejaz, attacks Ottoman garrisons in Arabia.
Lawrence of Arabia, a British intelligence officer, works with the Arabs.
The Sykes-Picot agreement divides up the Ottoman territories between England, France, Russia, Greece and Italy.
1917 Anglo Indian troops under Allenby capture Baghdad and Jerusalem.
The Balfour Declaration promises to set up a Jewish homeland in Palestine.
The French take Beirut.
Germany releases the Bolshevik leader Lenin to pressure Russia to drop out of the War.
The United States enters the War.
The Russian army begins to collapse on the western front. The October Revolution brings the Bolsheviks to power. Russia pulls out of the War.
1918 Mehmet VI becomes Ottoman Sultan.
Damascus falls to British Forces.
Germany and the Ottoman Empire capitulate. End of World War I.
The Wafd movement starts in Egypt.
1919 The victorious allies partition the Ottoman Empire.
Greece invades Anatolia.
1920 French mandate over Syria.
British mandate over Iraq and Palestine.
The Greeks capture Alashehir, Bahkesir, Bandarma and Bursa.
The Turks stop the Greeks at the Battle of Ankara.
1921 The British appoint Abdullah, son of Sharif Hussain, as emir of Trans Jordan.
Faisal, another son of Hussain, is appointed emir of Iraq.
The Turks are victorious over the Greeks at the Battle of the Sakarya River. Greece retreats from Anatolia.
1922 Abdul Mecit II becomes Ottoman Sultan.
Mustafa Kemal becomes President of the Republic of Turkey.
1924 The Turkish National Assembly abolishes the Caliphate.

* Submitted to the Encyclopedia of Islamic History ( on March 1, 1995.